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What is Database? A Brief Introduction on Database Technology


A database is a combination of digital and hardware bases where the data can be stored. Storage plays a crucial role for Database Management Systems particularly helps in storing and retrieving information stored. The information can be further analysed for developing an understanding of the market. The decisions can be made on the basis of outcome that is relevant to market dynamics, scope and demand. The data stored in the database gives sight to an organization to make an informed decision. This is the new fuel for the 21st century. A Database management system is an application that works in tandem with the administration department for storing and processing multiple datasets at the same time. The database can be a centralized, decentralized, or fragmented based on the business requirements.

History of Database

The first level computer was invented in early 1950. By the time India was celebrating and embracing freedom, the western countries were developing technologies that are destined to shape the world. The 1950 computer was very basic and worked on Binary Language, mostly used for performing the calculation, establishing communications, and helping scientists with Aviation Physics. At this time, the computer was not meant for Businesses. With globalization, demand for automation of redundant and mundane tasks started picking up.

The first system to be replaced is the ledger system used in Financial Accounting. The inventions in the computer sector picked up by the year 1961. The world started witnessing fast, accurate and reliable computers. A need for a programming language for businesses emerged. Computer Scientists had developed a Common Business Oriented Language COBOL for programming computers to perform specific business-oriented tasks. They were based on Navigational Databases. In these databases, the files can only be stored manually for record-keeping.

Evolution of Database

By 1991, when we witnessed Economic Reforms the western world was dwelling on using computer systems for recreational purposes. Therefore, by acknowledging the demand, scientists came up with a solution called NoSQL. The limitation of computers being used only for businesses is now being conquered by the NoSQL system. In these systems, the unstructured data such as Art, Photographs, and Music, etc. will be linked with an object and simultaneously it can be managed and stored effectively. These systems were launched under Java Relational Database Technology. The Data in the system can now be linked with a variety of keys such as Primary Key, Secondary Key, and Foreign Key. The object-oriented Database Management System has revolutionized Database technology and paved the roadmap for further inventions.

Types of Database Systems

  • Single File or Flat File Database
  • Multi-File or Relational Database

A single file database stores data in the form of a text file, wherein each line the data was separated by commas, delimiters, etc. Each line hold at least one record. This system contains a simple structure in the form of sheets.

A multi-file database is a relational database, where multiple files are linked with special key pages. These databases are more functional and provide many linkages which help in reading, creating, updating, and deleting data. A relational database system can be further classified into four types such as

  • Hierarchical Database- In this system, the data is stored in a tree-like structure, where each data is linked with one another. The relationships are recorded among files in a pre-defined manner, between 'parent and child nodes'. They require the user to pass the hierarchy in order to access needed data.
  • Network Database- In this system, there are multiple levels of hierarchies and key connections. It follows many to many relationships which means a child can have multiple parents. In this system, multiple datasets are stored at multiple places and accessed from different Key Locations.
  • Object-Oriented Database- In object-oriented databases, the information is mapped as objects. The objects can be accessed by different types of relations. The object-oriented database uses an object-oriented programming language for development.
  • NoSQL or Non-Relational Databases- NoSQL is a good alternative for relational databases. These are primarily used for synthesizing, processing, storing, and retrieving semi-structured and unstructured datasets. Documents such as graphs, images are the key components to be stored and analyzed in this Database.

Opting for an apt Database

Database Systems are complex and serious question needs to be considered while choosing a right system

  • Type of data to be used
  • Structure and model of data
  • Where will be the data stored?
  • the plan to manage it?
  • Plan to use it for?
  • How consistent will your data be?
  • What query mechanism will you be using?

If your need is small and has limited requirements of updating and filtering data then a spreadsheet will be a perfect option for you. However if you may have huge requirements of data and require multiple edits at the same time, then a relational database will be needed to consider.


The data as it may suggest is the information stored somewhere which can be used in multiple ways. Globally big corporations rely on data for decision making, for instance.

  • FMCG companies with the help of data have acknowledged and obtained 40% growth in sales just by reducing 3% of package size and content without affecting their user base.
  • Asian Paints know exactly at what time the demand for certain colours of paint is going to skyrocket and simultaneously update their inventory as per the locations.
  • Amazon knows exactly the spending power of a particular user and therefore suggests the product is reliable to them. With the help of data, Amazon studies the buying pattern and acknowledges the bestseller, and then launches a similar product with Amazon brand that is 30-40% cheaper and establishes its monopoly.
  • Zomato and Swiggy with the help of data know at what time the demand of which food is going to increase. They also know what would be the optimum price for selling those dishes, for e.g. - in November and December, a Biryani priced between 150-200 will become the best seller in North India.

Data and its management is an evergreen field and it has enormous potential. For all tech companies, a database administrator is a must-have position. Therefore making a career in this field is a smart decision.

With data comes vulnerabilities, there is huge risk of possible cyber-attacks on IT companies and other corporations, and which may result in losses in billions of dollars, globally! Therefore, this has opened a new array of jobs for Database security managers.

The first smartphone was launched in the year 2007 and by just over 14 years, we have witnessed a huge supply and demand change. The online presence is now a quintessential part of every business. The investment and returns related to data-driven analysis are at an all-time high. With the help of technological advancement, we are now adding more data every hour to our database system than we had added from the beginning of humankind to the year 2007.

To begin an in-depth journey in Database technology please refer to the courses offered at EdifyPath. We have a bunch of dynamic courses available which require basic computer knowledge and builds the base to become an expert in that particular field. This has been made possible with the help of our excellent mentor support program by successfully addressing every query with an accurate response.

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